How to come up with a job title

How to come up with a job title without directories

The recommendations in this article will help you solve this problem. They are partly taken from regulatory documents, partly from work practice.

Job titles can be basic and derivative; it is necessary to correctly use complementary words in derived titles. In addition, there are special words that are commonly used in job titles.

Always remember the basic principle of choosing a job title – the title of the job should correspond to the content of the work being performed. Following this principle and understanding the logic of the formation of job titles, it is not difficult to come up with a job title.

Base and derived job titles, variants of derived job titles

There are base and derivative job titles.

Basic job titles consist of one word that characterizes the typical type of work performed by the position. Very often the basic title is enough to correctly name the position. Examples of basic positions – director, secretary, archivist, designer, foreman, teacher, layout designer, etc.

Derived job titles, as a rule, consist of a base title that defines the type of work and addition words, and sometimes even phrases necessary to identify the position. With the help of additional words, the nature of the performed labor function is described, the specialty or specialization, field of activity, mode and (or) place of work, etc. are indicated

Complementary words can appear at the beginning of a job title (“sales manager”), in the middle (“deputy director of management”), or at the end of “CFO”).

What variants of derived job titles are most often used in practice:

  • Titles indicating in the title of the job the content of work and/or functions performed, for example, CFO, Marketing Director, Estimating Engineer, Financial Controller, Health and Safety Engineer, HR Inspector, Mathematics Teacher, procedure nurse, payroll accountant;
  • Names indicating belonging to a particular department, the name of which contains the functions performed by the position, for example, the controller of the technical control department, the head of the marketing department, the head of the school, the secretary of the sales department; kindergarten manager, HR manager, branch manager, etc.
  • Titles indicating the status of the position in relation to other positions that are similar in the content of the work performed, for example, General Director, Deputy Director, Senior Accountant, Lead Engineer; assistant director.
  • Titles indicating the job function performed by several positions at once, for example, layout designer, driver-forwarder, engineer-economist, educational psychologist, etc.

It is quite possible to combine the listed options with each other.

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Rules for the use of individual words in job titles

In addition to complying with the general requirements for the euphony and easy pronunciation of job titles, you should follow some more recommendations:

  • It is undesirable to use job titles that include, in addition to the base name, more than three words, including prepositions, as well as the use of foreign words and/or abbreviations.
  • When defining a job function for two or more positions, the name can be established:
    -for one of the positions, taking into account the largest share of work performed;
    -as a double title of the position (“forwarding driver”).
    At the same time, the duties assigned to the employee for each of the positions should be related in content, equal in complexity, and in the level of qualifications of the employee. “Dentist” is definitely not good for anything.
  • The word “deputy” is used for positions that are introduced to fulfill the duties of the relevant manager in the event of his temporary absence (vacation, illness, dismissal), or the performance of certain work related to the management of a department or enterprise – you need to indicate which ones. Do not forget that, you can conclude a fixed-term employment contract with deputy managers, as well as establish a longer trial period and dismiss on special grounds. If you do not use the word “deputy” in the title of the position, then the application of the above labor law norms to it may be challenged – “financial director” or “commercial director” is not formally deputy managers.
  • The word “chief” in combination with an indication of a profession, specialty, or position indicates that the employee is a manager responsible for a certain professional direction and area of ​​activity of the enterprise (chief accountant, chief engineer).
  • The addition word “leading” is used when the position is assigned the functions of a manager and a responsible executor of work in one of the activities of a structural unit, or responsibilities for coordination and methodological guidance of a group of executors.
  • The use of the addition word “senior” is possible provided that the employee, along with the performance of the duties stipulated for the position held, manages the subordinate executors. A position with the derivative “senior” can be established as an exception and in the absence of performers in the direct subordination of the employee, if he is entrusted with the functions of managing an independent section of work. For professional positions for which qualification categories are provided, the official title “senior” is not applied.
  • The basic title of the position “engineer” can be used only in cases when a specialist needs engineering knowledge in the volume of higher education to solve problems arising from the nature of production or type of activity.
  • The base job title “manager” is used in conjunction with derivatives that describe the function, job, or division.
  • The basic title of the position “assistant” is used to designate positions related to the performance of general work on behalf and under the direct control of the head of the organization or with the performance of part of the work entrusted to the head of the organization (specialist), as well as individual service assignments under the direct control of the head of the organization (specialist). As a supplement, the full name of the position of the manager or specialist is used.

Recommendations, letters of recommendation, scripts for checking recommendations

Why are recommendation letters no longer credible?

Because, like obituaries, they contain extremely positive characteristics. No one wastes time on thoughtful compilation – the text is googled or compiled by the applicant for recommendations. It is no less common practice when a letter of recommendation and a positive recommendation is used as a means of reducing costs when parting with an employee. Electronic confirmation of personal and business qualities is even easier –  dozens of strangers confirm each other’s qualifications by clicking on the desired section of the profile.

Recommendations: personal experience

Everyone has different experiences and hiring referrals. I was hired by recommendation once, I twice recommended people I knew from working together.

My recommended experienced personal driver with 15 years of accident-free experience crashed a car in a new location a week later and was accepted on the recommendation of the commercial director three months later by competitors of the previous employer.

And a month after starting work “on recommendation” I discovered an allergy to local corporate culture, an integral part of which was the exclusive right of the first person to use profanity in business communication.

Do you believe in the recommendations?

Other people, other relationships, other requirements, other goals and objectives, other conditions and content of work – all the above can make the result of hiring on recommendation unpredictable. That is why, knowing a person by working together, you cannot be sure that he will be successful with another employer. The issue of trusting the referrer is a separate topic altogether.

Even the materials on the Internet cause diametrically opposite reactions – someone considers them useful, someone writes in the comments about “nonsense”, “heresy” and “absolute unprofessionalism of the author”.

Who do you think you should listen to? I’m sure you guessed it! You need to have your own opinion. And the recommendations of other people should be perceived as nothing more than a source of additional information that allows you to form it.

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How to check recommendations

Verification of references is most often understood as a phone call or in-person to someone who can characterize the business and personal qualities of the applicant. Typically, this is either a manager or a colleague whose details are provided by the applicant, or an employee of the organization you are applying to for recommendations with the permission of the applicant. The accuracy and completeness of the information that you will receive during this conversation directly depend on how successfully you can conduct it. I will tell you about a sample conversation scenario and the speech scripts used during it.

Starting a conversation about recommendations

Introduce yourself, tell about the purpose of the call, find out if it is convenient for the interlocutor to talk to you. The first option, when you have the contact details of the referrer, might sound like this:

“Hello, my name is …, I am the deputy director of ABC. Your former subordinate … contacted us about the work. He gave me your phone number and said that I could contact you for recommendations. Is it convenient for you to talk now?”

The second option – you, with the consent of the applicant, call his previous place of work (either on the main phone, or ask to switch you to the personnel department):

“Hello, my name is …, I am the deputy director of ABC. Your former employee … contacted us about work, he did not mind that we contact his previous place of work. Could you please tell me which of the leaders can recommend to …? ”

After being connected with someone ready to give a recommendation, re-introduce yourself and repeat the purpose of the call:

“Hello, my name is …, I am the deputy director of ABC. Your former employee … contacted us about work, he did not mind that we contact his previous place of work. I was told that you can give a recommendation (job description/job review) to …? Is it convenient for you to talk now? ”

How to get recommendations

If your interlocutor does not make recommendations several times a day, he is unlikely to feel ready to give the former employee a detailed description. So that he does not feel uncomfortable and understands what we want to hear and generally “talk”, we say the following phrase.

“Please tell us about …’s work in your company – how good he was as a specialist (manager), whether there were any comments on his work, which is why they parted with him.”

Then you listen, ask clarifying questions, test your hypotheses regarding the business and personal qualities of the applicant.

How to ask clarifying questions about recommendations

If you need to clarify some information provided by the interlocutor, ask:

“If you were satisfied with …’s work, but he decided to leave the company because he was dissatisfied with the size of his salary, why didn’t they begin to retain a valuable employee?”

“Was … absenteeism, delays, was his work always completed on time?”

“Do I understand correctly what Sergei was responsible for …?”

Letters of Recommendation - The Anonymous Production Assistant

How to test hypotheses

As a rule, during an interview with an applicant, you have hypotheses about how the applicant’s experience matches your impression of his business and personal qualities, and how well your prediction about the success of the applicant’s work in your company will be confirmed.

One of the goals of talking with a referrer may be to test these hypotheses. To do this, you need to ask questions, the answers to which can either confirm or disprove your hypotheses. In terms of scripting, it might look like this:

“Your former employee is applying for a … position, where he will have … employees in subordination, while he will solve the following tasks …? Do you think he can handle such a job? What difficulties, in your opinion, will he experience?”

“Did I understand correctly that in your company Sergey Petrov was independently managing this project?”

“Sorry for this, perhaps not entirely correct question – did your former employee have a problem with alcohol?”

“If I understood correctly, … is now getting a second higher education. Did he take study leave, and did his studies interfere with his work? ”

“What would you advise us, as the next employer, to pay attention to in …’s work?”

How to end a conversation

“Thank you very much for the information, it is very important to us. Thanks for your time. Goodbye ”

What not to do when you check recommendations

  • Demand a clear and precise answer if you see the other person avoiding him. It is his good will to give recommendations, if he does not want to talk about something, you have no right to demand. If you start to demand, the conversation will not work.
  • Explicitly double-check what you heard from the interviewee. “… said at the interview that he did this kind of work in your company. Is it true? ”
    “… said that he decided to leave the company after he was denied a salary increase. Is that really so? ” At best, you will receive an evasive answer, at worst, your questions may negatively affect the relationship between the referrer and the former employee of the company if they have different assessments of the events preceding the dismissal. This will not add positive to your relationship with the applicant either – it is unlikely that he allowed you to refer in conversations with other people to what he said to you in a personal conversation.
  • Of course, you shouldn’t ask questions to the author of the recommendation letter “Did you write the truth in it?” Even if you have a letter of recommendation signed by the author, you shouldn’t refer to it and discuss its content.

Personnel search in social networks – case number 2


The first time I wrote about staff search in social networks was less than a year ago. I was looking for an HR director then, the article was called Recruiting personnel in social networks – personal experience.

In it, I published detailed statistics and wrote about the absence of any noticeable influence on the process of searching for a job advertisement from social networks, although, given the large number of groups dedicated to personnel management, I initially expected a significant response.

Not so long ago, the opportunity presented itself to continue the experiment – I was looking for a CIO who will work in my city. The geography of searches was unlimited. I assumed that such a vacancy would be quite suitable in order to once again assess how effective social networks are in finding personnel.

My experience with social media

Just like most website and blog owners, social media is part of my job. I visit them every day, the number of my contacts on social networks is close to the maximum allowed, I belong to all communities that include job seekers, employers, and HR specialists.

Experimenting with social networks when recruiting personnel, I used all the possibilities I had – I published hiring advertisements in the chronicle of my personal account, posted in different groups, as well as in all relevant groups of which I am a member.

I am aware that applicants, first of all, are looking for work on special resources to find a job, so I compared the results of the response from posting information on social networks with the number and quality of responses to an ad on

Free Vector | Social network communication

Personnel search in social networks – results

Not surprised. For 200 responses from, there were only 2-3 resumes from social networks, and their owners had up-to-date resumes on We did not have a noticeable effect on the search for resumes from social networks. Requests to repost the vacancy and recommend friends did not help; likes and reposts did not turn into responses.


I admit, in theory, that the jobs I’ve experimented with are not the most suitable for social media. Although, judging by the activity of colleagues who post posts with vacancies, social networks are not considered as a serious source of human resources.

The statuses observed on the network “I am in search … the name of the vacancy” or even “Vacancies! … and then the list”, it seems to me, more serve the purpose of forming a professional image of recruiters in the network than solve the problem of attracting applicants.

Unfortunately, some of the vacancies in personal profiles and posts are fake, designed to increase the popularity of the account and attract potential customers with a line of allegedly existing customers. Don’t seriously expect your social media job posting to help you fill a job or find a job.

Recruiting, kefir and pancakes

Case-analogue about recruiting

My wife sent her husband for kefir for pancakes: “Buy 1 liter of kefir with a fat content of 1.5% “Prostokvashino” or “House in the village” with a shelf life of at least a week from today.”

Probably, kefir of a different fat content would be quite suitable for the hostess for her purposes, and kefir from other manufacturers is not worse than the above, and the shelf life of 5-6 and not 7 days is not very critical. But even if someone has doubts about the validity of such strict requirements for a future purchase, they are unlikely to be discussed.

First, the husband is sent to the store, and not asked for advice on what, in his opinion, kefir should be chosen for pancakes.

Secondly, the husband is unlikely to risk recommending another kefir if his “pancake” experience is limited solely to the consumption of the finished product.

Third, there may not be time for discussion, especially if everyone is hungry.

Therefore, the husband will go to the store and buy what has been ordered, regardless of promotions and sales, for kefir of different fat content and from other manufacturers and with a shelf life of less than a week. Or will not buy, because the required kefir will not be on sale.

Recruitment in 99% of cases

This is the same as described above. If you have an idea of ​​what the “correct kefir” should be, then, of course, there are requirements for the “ideal candidate”.

And they are not discussed for the same reasons as the requirements for kefir:

  • no one asks the recruiter what, in his opinion, “human resource” is better suited for solving the tasks for which they are looking for an employee;
  • the recruiter does not know the content of the job well enough to advise the client;
  • neither the recruiter nor the customer has the time or the desire to assess the labor market and study the content of the work.

As a result, the recruiter is looking for personnel according to the requirements stated by the customer.

Classic Pancakes Recipe -

If the customer has not formulated requirements

The recruiter comes up with them himself, based on his ideas about what the ideal applicant for a vacant position should be. The risk that these requirements turn out to be incorrect is no lower than if they were formulated by the customer. Returning to the “kefir messenger” – there is no guarantee that his general understanding of how pancakes are baked will allow him to make the “right” purchase.

Why people buy Prostokvashino and where do the additional requirements come from

The presence of formal requirements formulated by the customer does not at all exclude the choice by other criteria, the use of which the customer may not even know.

About kefir, the preferences of the “messenger” may look something like this:

  • Kefir “Prostokvashino” tastes better than “House in the village”.
  • “The packaging design of Prostokvashino is more interesting than that of the House in the Village.
  • “I love pictures with cats, so I prefer Prostokvashino.”

Recruiters, of course, have their own “fad”.

  • “Applicants who do not write resume cover letters are not serious about their job search.”
  • “Those who ask a lot of questions about working conditions have the wrong motivation.”
  • “Specialized education is much more important than specialized work experience without education.”

Requirements all of the above can hardly be called stereotypes and subjective preferences, but the fact that they largely determine the result of selection/selection, hardly anyone will deny.

Labor disputes with an employer – 6 basic rules

Labor disputes in the law field

In a labor dispute, the employee is the weakest side. At the same time, he has little choice of ways to protect his rights. You can contact the labor inspectorate and the prosecutor’s office.

But their work on complaints is often limited to documentary verification. If the employer provides the necessary documents, the complaint will be useless. You will have to prove your claims in court.

A statement of claim, evidence, calculations, witnesses – the one who decided to go to the end will face several months of litigation.

How labor disputes are resolved

Most labor disputes do not go to court. Although employers are not interested in inspections by supervisory authorities and legal disputes, in most cases the employee is unable to defend his interests.

Few know how to put forward their demands and achieve their fulfillment, how to behave in a stressful situation of dismissal or non-payment of wages. Not everyone succeeds in simultaneously transforming from a loyal employee into a tough negotiator.

The fact that people familiar with working together take part in a labor dispute also complicates the employee’s task of protecting his rights.

How to protect yourself in a labor dispute

If you come to a self-defense course, you will not be immediately taught to free yourself from grips and punch in the throat.

First, they will tell you about the basic rules that you need to follow to maintain life and health in a variety of situations.

So will I. First – the basic rules that need to be followed to defend your interests in labor disputes, in the following publications – an analysis of cases with typical situations and techniques.

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Know your rights and responsibilities

This sentence is a standard topic for a school lesson. Relevant everywhere, always, suitable for any life situations. If you don’t know the rights, you don’t understand that they have been violated, you will not fulfill your obligations, and now you have already violated someone’s rights.

It’s easy to find out about your rights and obligations – the Labor Code, comments to it, forums of lawyers, and court practice are easy to find on the Internet. It’s a shame if you lose a labor dispute simply because you were too lazy to ask Google a question.

Be prepared to show evidence

Obligation to prove. Each party must prove the circumstances to which it refers as the basis for its claims and objections. Remember – you cannot prove that your rights have been violated – you cannot protect them. So collect proof of your case ahead of time. Do not lose important documents if you signed a new document related to labor relations – ask for a copy.

If you are not the owner of the company you work for, do not hope for a life-long contract and good relations – think in advance about what you will do in a dispute with the employer and how you will prove the strength of your position.

Make offers you can’t refuse

You can get the employer to accept the offer if you correctly present the merits of your offer and the unpleasant consequences that can occur if you refuse it.

The costs and publicity in the process of resolving a labor dispute, obvious violations, followed by fines, the amount of which clearly exceeds the number of the employer’s obligations to the employee, may well force the employer to accept the conditions offered by the employee.

Use remedies proportionate to the violation of your right

Lawyers often talk about this when commenting on the article of the Criminal Code on exceeding the limits of necessary defense.

“Inadequacy of protective equipment to the degree and nature of the danger of encroachment.”

If we discuss this the sphere of labor relations, it sounds something like this – if you were paid vacation pay not three days before the start of vacation, but one, this is not a reason to run with a complaint to the labor inspectorate. You are unlikely to win anything in such a dispute.

But if you were put out on the street without calculation and workbook, you are not limited in the choice of methods of influencing the employer that are not prohibited by law.

Keep promises

If you warned the employer that you will defend your rights – act. Until you start doing something, no one will take you seriously. The employer has already made his move – violated your rights. He will not take any other action until he sees what you have done in response.

Don’t believe don’t be afraid don’t ask

This phrase is well suited to a stressful situation in a labor dispute. If it is decided to fire you or not to pay you wages, it is useless to ask to change this decision. The rent for a rented apartment, mortgage, and student loans do not concern either the business owner who decided to lay off the staff or your boss, who simply does not like you.

You shouldn’t be surprised that your friends at work have become exes and are ready to expose a truant and a lazy person in your face – they are not fired, they continue to get paid, and people are ready for a lot for the sake of money. Do not believe anyone’s words, do not sign without thinking, any documents – in no case show your fear and uncertainty.

If you are required to sign a document “urgently”, do not do it – take time out until the next day, take the document with you – read it in a calm atmosphere. Even if you succumbed to pressure and verbally agreed to unfavorable conditions for yourself, no one bothers you to take your words back – you have no obligation to make concessions to those who violate your rights. And even if you are horrified by the situation in which you find yourself, demonstrate toughness and exactingness – only this will force the employer to negotiate with you.

Job search consultation – three recipes

How to properly advise job seekers

This article does not contain a word about how to look for a job correctly. And the answer to the question, what should be the correct advice on finding a job, you will not find in it either.

Hundreds of coaches and consultants are ready to make you a “professional in finding a job” and instill in you the confidence of success, but no one will give you a guarantee of a cure for unemployment and career failure.

I am not going to recommend or criticize different approaches to advising candidates – I will limit myself to a brief description of the most common recipes.

Believe in yourself and do it right

Learn how to dress for an interview, what to say and what to keep quiet about, what to write in a cover letter, how to please a recruiter and a future boss, how to talk about yourself confidently and coherently, how to answer tests, where and what resume to post, how to “glow” in social networks, forums, and professional communities. How to sincerely admire the power of an employer’s HR brand and tell you that since childhood you dreamed of getting into this particular company. What and where you need to study to impress the recruiter with the level of your knowledge of how to plan your career.

Sell Yourself

Learn how to convince the recruiter that you are the best, how to write letters to the recruiter and make calls after sending the resume, how to get to the Decision Maker, and convince him to consider your resume. How to promote your professional image on social media, how to expand the circle of “potential buyers” of your workforce. How to toughly negotiate wages, forcing the employer to name the amount first, and how to squeeze out the desired offer.

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Marketing Analysis

This is tedious analytical work – market assessment of the experience, knowledge, and skills of the applicant, as well as the proposals of employers and the resume of competitors “here” and “now.”

Assessment of the “market value” of the applicant, based on an analysis of the current supply and demand. Evaluation of the perception of a resume as a commercial proposal, correction of the resume based on content analysis of employer’s job descriptions, and the resume of competitors in the labor market. In this approach, the applicant is viewed as a product that needs to be brought to the market, the price of which (salary) is determined based on the analysis of supply and demand.

What is the right job search advice?

I don’t presume to judge this for one simple reason – the logic of choosing others by some people is often inexplicable and unpredictable. I described a typical example in Case about the subjectivity of a hiring decision.

What will play a decisive role – a rehearsed story about your work experience, activity, or accurate calculation, hardly anyone will know. Most drugs have a limited spectrum of action and serious contraindications – this also applies to the recipes listed above.

Some employers are not affected by the job seeker charm. Some recruiters are allergic to the expressed activity of candidates. The marketing approach is not a panacea either – history knows many cases when a product doomed to success did not find its buyer.

What to do

Rely on common sense when it comes to job search and employment relationships.

The Pareto Rule says: “20% of actions give 80% of the result.” The only problem is that you first need to take 100% of the action before the desired 20% of the result appears.

So, not counting on an instant result, you need to try all the available tools and methods on your own or with the help of specialists.